The ultrasonic scaler operates at a low frequency of about 3,000 to 8,000 cycles/second (which is how many times the tip comes in contact with the tooth). The ultrasonic scaler is air-driven, and the tip moves in an elliptical motion. The ultrasonic handpiece utilizes either magnetostrictive or piezoelectric technology. Magnetostrictive inserts operate at 25,000 to 30,000 cycles/second and, like the sonic scaler, have an elliptical motion. A low-voltage magnetic signal causes tip movement. Piezo-electric technology operates at 28,000 to 36,000 cycles/second. The tip moves in a back-and-forth motion and works along the side of the tooth, shaving off calculus and debris. Here the handpiece, rather than the instrument tip, is activated. This course is non-refundable.